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Backend localization

Translation strings

Platform translation strings are stored as JSON in the core repository. These files must be located adjacent to the component/platform they belong to. Components must have their own directory, and the file is simply named strings.json in that directory. This file will contain the different strings that will be translatable.

The strings.json contains translations for different things that the integration offers that need to be translated.

CategoryDescription
titleTitle of the integration.
configTranslations for the config flow.
deviceTranslations for devices.
device_automationTranslations for device automations.
entityTranslations for entities.
entity_componentTranslations for entity components.
exceptionsTranslations for error messages.
issuesTranslations for repairs issues.
optionsTranslations for the options flow.
selectorsSelectors of the integration.
servicesServices of the integration.

Title

This category is just a string: the translation of the integration name. This key is optional and Home Assistant will fallback to the integration name if it is omitted. Only include this if it's not a product brand.

Config / Options

The translation strings for the configuration flow handler and the option flow handler are defined under the config and options keys respectively. An example strings file below describes the different supported keys. Although the example shows translations for a configuration flow, the translations for an option flow is exactly the same.

{
"config": {
// Optional. Title to show in list. Only will be rendered if placeholders required
"flow_title": "Discovered Device ({host})",
"step": {
"init": {
// Optional. Will show the integration name if omitted
"title": "The user visible title of the `init` step.",
// Optional
"description": "Markdown that is shown with the step.",
"data": {
"api_key": "The label for the `api_key` input field"
}
}
},
"error": {
"invalid_api_key": "This message will be displayed if `invalid_api_key` is returned as a flow error."
},
"abort": {
"stale_api_key": "This message will be displayed if `stale_api_key` is returned as the abort reason."
},
"progress": {
"slow_task": "This message will be displayed if `slow_task` is returned as `progress_action` for `async_show_progress`."
}
}
}

Selectors

The translation for selectors are defined under the selector key. It supports option label translations for the selector select. The integration should set the translation_key on the selector select configuration. This allows translations on select selectors used in config and options flows. An example strings file below describes the different supported keys.

{
"config": {
"flow_title": "Discovered Device ({host})",
"step": {
"init": {
"title": "The user visible title of the `init` step.",
"description": "Markdown that is shown with the step.",
"data": {
// Config flow selector select with options that support translations
"set_ca_cert": "Broker certificate validation"
}
}
}
},
// Translations for selector select to be used in option and config flows
"selector": {
// The key is linked to the `translation_key` that needs to be set
// using the SelectSelectorConfig class
"set_ca_cert": {
// The translations for the selector select option labels
"options": {
"off": "Off",
"auto": "Auto",
"custom": "Custom"
}
}
}
}

Services

The translations of service strings are defined under the services key.

It supports translating the name and description of each service, and the name and description of each service's fields.

{
"selector": {
"fan_speed": {
"options": {
"high": "High",
"low": "Low",
"medium": "Medium",
"off": "Off",
}
}
},
"services": {
"set_speed": {
"name": "Set speed",
"description": "Sets fan speed.",
"fields": {
"speed": {
"name": "Speed",
"description": "The speed to set."
}
}
}
}
}
note

Services may use selectors in their fields. The translation of those selectors can be provided using the translation_key property on the selector definition in the services.yaml file. See the Selectors section and the Service description page for more information.

Device automations

The translation strings for device automations are defined under the device_automation key. An example strings file below describes the different supported keys.

{
"device_automation": {
// Translations for supported device actions
"action_type": {
"open": "Open {entity_name}"
}
// Translations for supported device conditions
"condition_type": {
"is_open": "{entity_name} is open"
}
// Translations for supported device triggers
"trigger_type": {
"opened": "{entity_name} opened",
"remote_button_short_press": "\"{subtype}\" button pressed",
}
// Translations for device trigger sub types, typically used for names of buttons
"trigger_subtype": {
"button_1": "First button"
}
}
}

Exceptions

Localization is supported for HomeAssistantError and its subclasses. The translation strings for exceptions are defined under the exception key in a strings.json file. The example below describes the different supported keys.

{
"exceptions": {
// Translations for known exceptions
"invalid_index": {
"message": "Invalid index selected, expected [0,1,2]. Got {index}"
}
}
}

Example of raising an exception with localization during a service call:

async def async_select_index(hass: HomeAssistant, index: int) -> None:
"""Setup the config entry for my device."""
try:
check_index(index)
except ValueError as exc:
raise ServiceValidationError(
translation_domain=DOMAIN,
translation_key="invalid_index",
translation_placeholders={
"index": index,
},
) from exc

Issues

The translation strings for repairs issues are defined under the issues key. An example strings file below describes the different supported keys.

{
"issues": {
"cold_tea": {
// The title of the issue
"title": "The tea is cold",
// Translations for a fixable issue's repair flow, defined in the same way as translation for a configuration flow.
// Exactly one of `fix_flow` or `description. must be present.
"fix_flow": {
"abort": {
"not_tea_time": "Can not re-heat the tea at this time"
}
}
},
"unfixable_problem": {
"title": "This is not a fixable problem",
// Description of the issue, exactly one of `fix_flow` or `description. must be present.
"description": "This issue can't be fixed by a flow."
}
}
}

Devices

Name of devices

Integrations can provide translations for names of its devices. To do this, provide a device object, that contains translations of the names and set the device's translation_key to a key under a domain in the device object. If the device's translation_key is not None, the name which is either set in an entity's device_info property or passed to DeviceRegistry.async_get_or_create, will be ignored. If the device object does not provide a translated name for the specified translation_key, the translation_key will be used as device name.

It is also supported to use placeholders within the translation. If a placeholder is defined within the translation string, the device's translation_placeholders has to be set accordingly.

The following example strings.json is for a device with its translation_key set to power_strip:

{
"device": {
"power_strip": {
"name": "Power strip"
}
}
}

The following example strings.json is for a device with its translation_key property set to n_ch_power_strip and a placeholder number_of_sockets:

{
"device": {
"n_ch_power_strip": {
"name": "Power strip with {number_of_sockets} sockets"
}
}
}

Entities

Name of entities

Integrations can provide translations for names of its entities. To do this, provide an entity object, that contains translations of the names and set the entity's translation_key property to a key under a domain in the entity object. If the entity's translation_key property is not None and the entity object provides a translated name, EntityDescription.name will be ignored.

Entity components, like sensor, already have existing translations available that can be reused by referencing those. This includes common translations for entity names based on a device class. For example, it already has translations available for a "Temperature" sensor that can be referenced. Referencing existing translations is preferred, as it prevents translating the same thing multiple times.

It is also supported to use placeholders within the translation. If a placeholder is defined within the translation string, the entity's translation_placeholders property has to be set accordingly.

The following example strings.json is for a sensor entity with its translation_key property set to thermostat_mode:

{
"entity": {
"sensor": {
"thermostat_mode": {
"name": "Thermostat mode"
}
}
}
}

The following example strings.json is for a sensor entity with its translation_key property set to temperature_sensor where a shared translation provided by the sensor integration is used:

{
"entity": {
"sensor": {
"temperature_sensor": {
"name": "[%key:component::sensor::entity_component::temperature::name%]"
}
}
}
}

The following example strings.json is for a sensor entity with its translation_key property set to distance and a placeholder tracked_device:

{
"entity": {
"sensor": {
"distance": {
"name": "Distance of {tracked_device}"
}
}
}
}

State of entities

Integrations can provide translations for states of its entities under other integrations like sensor if the base entity component does not provide translations, or if the translation provided by the base entity component do not match the integration's entity. To do this, provide an entity object, that contains translations for states and set the entity's translation_key property to a key under a domain in the entity object.

To differentiate entities and their translations, provide different translation keys. The following example strings.json is for a Moon domain sensor entity with its translation_key property set to phase:

{
"entity": {
"sensor": {
"phase": {
"state": {
"new_moon": "New moon",
"first_quarter": "First quarter",
"full_moon": "Full moon",
"last_quarter": "Last quarter"
}
}
}
}
}

Entity state attributes

Integrations can provide translations for its entities' state attributes under other integrations like sensor if the base entity component does not provide translations, or if the translation provided by the base entity component do not match the integration's entity. To do this, provide an entity object, that contains translations for entity state attributes and set the entity's translation_key property to a key under a domain in the entity object.

To differentiate entities and their translations, provide different translation keys. The following example strings.json is for a demo domain climate entity with its translation_key property set to ubercool, which has custom fan_mode and swing_mode settings:

{
"entity": {
"climate": {
"ubercool": {
"state_attributes": {
"fan_mode": {
"state": {
"auto_high": "Auto High",
"auto_low": "Auto Low",
"on_high": "On High",
"on_low": "On Low"
}
},
"swing_mode": {
"state": {
"1": "1",
"2": "2",
"3": "3",
"auto": "Auto",
"off": "Off"
}
}
}
}
}
}
}

State of entity components

If your integration provides entities under its domain, you will want to translate the states. You do this by offering a states object under the entity_component dictionary, that contains translations for states with different device classes. The key _ is used for entities without a device class.

{
"entity_component": {
"problem": {
"state": {
"off": "OK",
"on": "Problem"
}
},
"safety": {
"state": {
"off": "Safe",
"on": "Unsafe"
}
},
"_": {
"state": {
"off": "[%key:common::state::off%]",
"on": "[%key:common::state::on%]"
}
}
}
}

Entity attribute name and state of entity components

info

Translation of entity attribute names and states also requires frontend support, which is currently only available for climate entities.

If your integration provides entities under its domain, you will want to translate the name of entity attributes and also entity state attributes. You do this by offering a state_attributes object in the entity_component dictionary, that contains translations for entity attributes with different device classes. The key _ is used for entities without a device class.

{
"entity_component": {
"_": {
"state_attributes": {
"aux_heat": { "name": "Aux heat" },
"current_humidity": { "name": "Current humidity" },
"current_temperature": { "name": "Current temperature" },
"fan_mode": {
"name": "Fan mode",
"state": {
"off": "[%key:common::state::off%]",
"on": "[%key:common::state::on%]",
"auto": "Auto",
"low": "Low",
"medium": "Medium",
"high": "High",
"top": "Top",
"middle": "Middle",
"focus": "Focus",
"diffuse": "Diffuse"
}
}
}
}
}
}

Test translations

In order to test changes to translation files, the translation strings must be compiled into Home Assistant’s translation directories by running the following script:

python3 -m script.translations develop

If translations do not show, clear the browser cache (cmd + R (for MacOS), ctrl + F5 (Windows and Linux))

Introducing new strings

To introduce new strings, add them to strings.json or to a platform strings file. Try to use as many references to common strings as possible. Common strings live in homeassistant/strings.json. You can refer to those translations using references. For example:

{
"config": {
"abort": {
"already_configured": "[%key:common::config_flow::abort::already_configured_device%]"
}
}
}

After the pull request with the strings file is merged into the dev branch, the strings will be automatically uploaded to Lokalise, where contributors can submit translations. The translated strings in Lokalise will be periodically pulled in to the core repository.