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Sensor Entity

A sensor is a read-only entity that provides some information. Information has a value and optionally, a unit of measurement. Derive entity platforms from homeassistant.components.sensor.SensorEntity



Properties should always only return information from memory and not do I/O (like network requests). Implement update() or async_update() to fetch data.

device_classstringNoneType of sensor.
last_resetdatetime.datetimeNoneThe time when an accumulating sensor such as an electricity usage meter, gas meter, water meter etc. was initialized. If the time of initialization is unknown, set it to None. Note that the datetime.datetime returned by the last_reset property will be converted to an ISO 8601-formatted string when the entity's state attributes are updated. When changing last_reset, the state must be a valid number.
native_unit_of_measurementstringNoneThe unit of measurement that the sensor's value is expressed in. If the native_unit_of_measurement is °C or °F, and its device_class is temperature, the sensor's unit_of_measurement will be the preferred temperature unit configured by the user and the sensor's state will be the native_value after an optional unit conversion.
native_valueNone,, datetime.datetime, decimal.Decimal, float, int, stringRequiredThe value of the sensor in the sensor's native_unit_of_measurement. Using a device_class may restrict the types that can be returned by this property.
optionslistNoneIn case this sensor provides a textual state, this property can be used to provide a list of possible states. Requires the enum device class to be set. Cannot be combined with state_class or native_unit_of_measurement.
state_classstringNoneType of state. If not None, the sensor is assumed to be numerical and will be displayed as a line-chart in the frontend instead of as discrete values.
suggested_display_precisionintNoneThe number of decimals which should be used in the sensor's state when it's displayed.
suggested_unit_of_measurementstringNoneThe unit of measurement to be used for the sensor's state. For sensors with a unique_id, this will be used as the initial unit of measurement, which users can then override. For sensors without a unique_id, this will be the unit of measurement for the sensor's state. This property is intended to be used by integrations to override automatic unit conversion rules, for example, to make a temperature sensor always display in °C regardless of whether the configured unit system prefers °C or °F, or to make a distance sensor always display in miles even if the configured unit system is metric.

Instead of adding extra_state_attributes for a sensor entity, create an additional sensor entity. Attributes that do not change are only saved in the database once. If extra_state_attributes and the sensor value both frequently change, this can quickly increase the size of the database.

Available device classes

If specifying a device class, your sensor entity will need to also return the correct unit of measurement.

ConstantSupported unitsDescription
SensorDeviceClass.APPARENT_POWERVAApparent power
SensorDeviceClass.AQINoneAir Quality Index
SensorDeviceClass.ATMOSPHERIC_PRESSUREcbar, bar, hPa, mmHG, inHg, kPa, mbar, Pa, psiAtmospheric pressure.
SensorDeviceClass.BATTERY%Percentage of battery that is left
SensorDeviceClass.CO2ppmConcentration of carbon dioxide.
SensorDeviceClass.COppmConcentration of carbon monoxide.
SensorDeviceClass.CURRENTA, mACurrent
SensorDeviceClass.DATA_RATEbit/s, kbit/s, Mbit/s, Gbit/s, B/s, kB/s, MB/s, GB/s, KiB/s, MiB/s, GiB/sData rate
SensorDeviceClass.DATA_SIZEbit, kbit, Mbit, Gbit, B, kB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB, KiB, MiB, GiB, TiB, PiB, EiB, ZiB, YiBData size
SensorDeviceClass.DATEDate. Requires native_value to be a Python object, or None.
SensorDeviceClass.DISTANCEkm, m, cm, mm, mi, yd, inGeneric distance
SensorDeviceClass.DURATIONd, h, min, s, msTime period. Should not update only due to time passing. The device or service needs to give a new data point to update.
SensorDeviceClass.ENERGYWh, kWh, MWh, MJ, GJEnergy, this device class should used for sensors representing energy consumption, for example an electricity meter. Represents power over time. Not to be confused with power.
SensorDeviceClass.ENERGY_STORAGEWh, kWh, MWh, MJ, GJStored energy, this device class should be used for sensors representing stored energy, for example the amount of electric energy currently stored in a battery or the capacity of a battery. Represents power over time. Not to be confused with power.
SensorDeviceClass.ENUMThe sensor has a limited set of (non-numeric) states. The options property must be set to a list of possible states when using this device class.
SensorDeviceClass.FREQUENCYHz, kHz, MHz, GHzFrequency
SensorDeviceClass.GASm³, ft³, CCFVolume of gas. Gas consumption measured as energy in kWh instead of a volume should be classified as energy.
SensorDeviceClass.HUMIDITY%Relative humidity
SensorDeviceClass.ILLUMINANCElxLight level
SensorDeviceClass.IRRADIANCEW/m², BTU/(h⋅ft²)Irradiance
SensorDeviceClass.MONETARYISO 4217Monetary value with a currency.
SensorDeviceClass.NITROGEN_DIOXIDEµg/m³Concentration of nitrogen dioxide
SensorDeviceClass.NITROGEN_MONOXIDEµg/m³Concentration of nitrogen monoxide
SensorDeviceClass.NITROUS_OXIDEµg/m³Concentration of nitrous oxide
SensorDeviceClass.OZONEµg/m³Concentration of ozone
SensorDeviceClass.PHNonePotential hydrogen (pH) of a aqueous solution
SensorDeviceClass.PM1µg/m³Concentration of particulate matter less than 1 micrometer
SensorDeviceClass.PM25µg/m³Concentration of particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers
SensorDeviceClass.PM10µg/m³Concentration of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers
SensorDeviceClass.POWERW, kWPower.
SensorDeviceClass.POWER_FACTOR%, NonePower Factor
SensorDeviceClass.PRECIPITATIONcm, in, mmAccumulated precipitation
SensorDeviceClass.PRECIPITATION_INTENSITYin/d, in/h, mm/d, mm/hPrecipitation intensity
SensorDeviceClass.PRESSUREcbar, bar, hPa, inHg, kPa, mbar, Pa, psiPressure.
SensorDeviceClass.REACTIVE_POWERvarReactive power
SensorDeviceClass.SIGNAL_STRENGTHdB, dBmSignal strength
SensorDeviceClass.SOUND_PRESSUREdB, dBASound pressure
SensorDeviceClass.SPEEDft/s, in/d, in/h, km/h, kn, m/s, mph, mm/dGeneric speed
SensorDeviceClass.SULPHUR_DIOXIDEµg/m³Concentration of sulphure dioxide
SensorDeviceClass.TEMPERATURE°C, °F, KTemperature.
SensorDeviceClass.TIMESTAMPTimestamp. Requires native_value to return a Python datetime.datetime object, with time zone information, or None.
SensorDeviceClass.VOLATILE_ORGANIC_COMPOUNDSµg/m³Concentration of volatile organic compounds
SensorDeviceClass.VOLATILE_ORGANIC_COMPOUNDS_PARTSppm, ppbRatio of volatile organic compounds
SensorDeviceClass.VOLTAGEV, mVVoltage
SensorDeviceClass.VOLUMEL, mL, gal, fl. oz., m³, ft³, CCFGeneric volume, this device class should be used for sensors representing a consumption, for example the amount of fuel consumed by a vehicle.
SensorDeviceClass.VOLUME_STORAGEL, mL, gal, fl. oz., m³, ft³, CCFGeneric stored volume, this device class should be used for sensors representing a stored volume, for example the amount of fuel in a fuel tank.
SensorDeviceClass.WATERL, gal, m³, ft³, CCFWater consumption
SensorDeviceClass.WEIGHTkg, g, mg, µg, oz, lb, stGeneric mass; weight is used instead of mass to fit with every day language.
SensorDeviceClass.WIND_SPEEDft/s, km/h, kn, m/s, mphWind speed

Available state classes


Choose the state class for a sensor with care. In most cases, state class measurement or state class total without last_reset should be chosen, this is explained further in How to choose state_class and last_reset below.

measurementThe state represents a measurement in present time, not a historical aggregation such as statistics or a prediction of the future. Examples of what should be classified measurement are: current temperature, humidity or electric power. Examples of what should not be classified as measurement: Forecasted temperature for tomorrow, yesterday's energy consumption or anything else that doesn't include the current measurement. For supported sensors, statistics of hourly min, max and average sensor readings is updated every 5 minutes.
totalThe state represents a total amount that can both increase and decrease, e.g. a net energy meter. Statistics of the accumulated growth or decline of the sensor's value since it was first added is updated every 5 minutes. This state class should not be used for sensors where the absolute value is interesting instead of the accumulated growth or decline, for example remaining battery capacity or CPU load; in such cases state class measurement should be used instead.
total_increasingSimilar to total, with the restriction that the state represents a monotonically increasing positive total which periodically restarts counting from 0, e.g. a daily amount of consumed gas, weekly water consumption or lifetime energy consumption. Statistics of the accumulated growth of the sensor's value since it was first added is updated every 5 minutes. A decreasing value is interpreted as the start of a new meter cycle or the replacement of the meter.

Entity options

Sensors can be configured by the user, this is done by storing sensor entity options in the sensor's entity registry entry.

unit_of_measurementThe sensor's unit of measurement can be overridden for sensors with device class pressure or temperature.

Restoring sensor states

Sensors which restore the state after restart or reload should not extend RestoreEntity because that does not store the native_value, but instead the state which may have been modifed by the sensor base entity. Sensors which restore the state should extend RestoreSensor and call await self.async_get_last_sensor_data from async_added_to_hass to get access to the stored native_value and native_unit_of_measurement.

Long-term Statistics

Home Assistant has support for storing sensors as long-term statistics if the entity has the right properties. To opt-in for statistics, the sensor must have state_class set to one of the valid state classes: measurement, total or total_increasing. For certain device classes, the unit of the statistics is normalized to for example make it possible to plot several sensors in a single graph.

Entities not representing a total amount

Home Assistant tracks the min, max and mean value during the statistics period. The state_class property must be set to measurement, and the device_class must not be either of energy, gas, or monetary

Entities representing a total amount

Entities tracking a total amount have a value that may optionally reset periodically, like this month's energy consumption, today's energy production or the yearly growth of a stock portfolio. The sensor's value when the first statistics is compiled is used as the initial zero-point.

How to choose state_class and last_reset

It's recommended to use state class total without last_reset whenever possible, state class total_increasing or total with last_reset should only be used when state class total without last_reset does not work for the sensor.


  • The sensor's value never resets, e.g. a lifetime total energy consumption or production: state_class total, last_reset not set or set to None
  • The sensor's value may reset to 0, and its value can only increase: state class total_increasing. Examples: energy consumption aligned with a billing cycle, e.g. monthly, an energy meter resetting to 0 every time it's disconnected
  • The sensor's value may reset to 0, and its value can both increase and decrease: state class total, last_reset updated when the value resets. Examples: net energy consumption aligned with a billing cycle, e.g. monthly.
  • The sensor's state is reset with every state update, for example a sensor updating every minute with the energy consumption during the past minute: state class total, last_reset updated every state change.

State class total

For sensors with state class total, the last_reset attribute can optionally be set to gain manual control of meter cycles. The sensor's state when it's first added to Home Assistant is used as an initial zero-point. When last_reset changes, the zero-point will be set to 0. If last_reset is not set, the sensor's value when it was first added is used as the zero-point when calculating sum statistics.

To put it in another way: the logic when updating the statistics is to update the sum column with the difference between the current state and the previous state unless last_reset has been changed, in which case don't add anything.

Example of state class total without last_reset:


Example of state class total with last_reset:


Example of state class total where the there initial state at the beginning of the new meter cycle is not 0, but 0 is used as zero-point:


State class total_increasing

For sensors with state_class total_increasing, a decreasing value is interpreted as the start of a new meter cycle or the replacement of the meter. It is important that the integration ensures that the value cannot erroneously decrease in the case of calculating a value from a sensor with measurement noise present. There is some tolerance, a decrease between state changes of < 10% will not trigger a new meter cycle. This state class is useful for gas meters, electricity meters, water meters etc. The value when the sensor reading decreases will not be used as zero-point when calculating sum statistics, instead the zero-point will be set to 0.

To put it in another way: the logic when updating the statistics is to update the sum column with the difference between the current state and the previous state unless the difference is negative, in which case don't add anything.

Example of state class total_increasing:


Example of state class total_increasing where the sensor does not reset to 0: